National Education Policy of India 2020 (NEP 2020)

The National Education Policy of India 2020 (NEP 2020), is a new education policy system of India for the future betterment in education field which was approved by the Union Cabinet of India on 29 Jul 2020, The National education policy (NEP) of India 2020 replaces the old version of National Policy on Education, 1986. This new policy is a foundation for the elementary education to higher education as well as professional training in both village as well as towny India. The new National Education policy aims to transform India’s former education system by 2040.

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After the announcement of the policy, the GoI (government of India) explain that no one will be compelled to study in any particular language and that the medium of instruction will not be shifted from English to any other regional language.

National Education Policy of India 2020 History/Timeline

  • The NEP 2020 replaces the National Policy on Education of 1986.
  • In January 2015, a council under former Cabinet Secretary T. S. R. Subramanian started the consultation process for the New Education Policy (NEP). Based on the council report, in June – 2017, the draft NEP was submitted in 2019 by a panel headed by former Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan.
  • The Draft New Education Policy (DNEP) 2019, was later released by Ministry of Human Resource Development, (MHRD) followed by a number of public consultations.
  • The Draft NEP I National Education Policy) was 484 pages. The Ministry undertook an approximate “Over two lakh suggestions from 2.5 lakh gram panchayats, 6,600 blocks, 6,000 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), 676 districts were received.”
  • Online conference on NEP-2020 attended by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 7 August 2020.
  • The National Education Policy of India 2020 (NEP 2020) being discussed and debated with educational institutions like BITS Pilani, Jamia Millia Islamia, Panjab University, Tezpur University, Assam and CU Kerala across the country.
National Education Policy of India 2020
National Education Policy of India 2020

National Education Policy of India 2020 Provisions:

The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) pass numerous changes in India’s education policy. Its main aims to increase state expenditure on education from around 3% to 6% of the GDP as soon as possible.

The changes and objectives are: Languages:

The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) has ‘point up ’ on the use of mother tongue/ local language as the medium of instruction till Class 5th while, recommending its continuance till Class 8th and beyond Sanskrit and foreign languages will also be given weight. This new Policy recommends that all students will learn 03 languages in their school under the ‘blueprint’. At least two out of three languages should be native to India. It also states that no language will be forced on the students.

Soon after the broadcast of the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020), the government of India clarified that the language policy in NEP and that it was up to the states, institutions and schools to decide the implementation of this new policy.

School education:

According to National Education Policy 2020, The “10 + 2” structure will be replaced with “5+3+3+4” model.

This will be implemented as follows:

  • Foundational Stage: This is further sub-divided into two parts: 3 years of kindergarten or pre-school or anganwadi, followed by classes 1 and 2 in primary school.
    (This will cover children of ages 3–8 years. The main agenda of studies will be in activity-based learning).
  • Preparatory Stage: Classes- 3 to 5, which will cover the ages of 8–11 years. It will gradually introduce subjects like – speaking, reading, writing, physical education, languages, art, science and mathematics.
  • Middle Stage: Classes- 6 to 8, covering children between ages 11 and 14. It will introduce students to the more abstract concepts in subjects of mathematics, sciences, social sciences, arts and humanities.
  • Secondary Stage: Classes- 9 to 12, covering the ages of 14–19 years. It is again subdivided into two parts: classes 9 and 10 covering the first phase while classes 11 and 12 covering the second phase. These 4 years of study are intended to inculcate multidisciplinary study, coupled with depth and critical thinking. Multiple options of subjects will be provided.

Instead of exams being held every academic year, school students will only attend three exams, in classes 2, 5 and 8.
The National Education Policy aims at reducing the curriculum load of students and allowing them to be more “inter-disciplinary” and “multi-lingual”.
Coding class will be introduced from class 6 and experiential learning will be adopted
The Mid-day Meal Scheme will be extended to include breakfasts. More focus will be given to students’ health, particularly mental health, through the deployment of counsellors and social workers.

Higher education as per National Education Policy:

According to National Education Policy 2020 NEP 2020), a 4-year multi-disciplinary bachelor’s degree proposed in an undergraduate programme with multiple exit options. These will include professional and vocational areas and will be implemented as follows:

  • A certificate after completing 1 year of study
  • A diploma after completing 2 years of study
  • A Bachelor’s degree after completion of a 3-year programme
  • A 4-year multidisciplinary Bachelor’s degree (the preferred option)
  • MPhil (Masters of Philosophy) courses are to be discontinued
  • A Higher Education Council of India (HECI) will be set up to regulate higher education. The council’s goal will be to increase gross enrollment ratio. The HECI will have 4 verticals:

Teacher education as per National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020):

According to The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020), to become a teacher,
Qualification – 4-year Bachelor of Education will be the min. requirement needed by 2030. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) will frame a National Curriculum for Teacher Education by 2021 and a National Professional Standards for Teachers by 2022. The policy aims to
ensure that all students at all levels of school education are taught by passionate, motivated, highly qualified, professionally trained, and well-equipped qualified teachers.

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